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Zusammenstellung ausgewählter Bilder zum den verschiedenen Landestellen auf dem Mars, die um weiterführenden Links mit der Möglichkeit des Downloads ergänzt wurden.

  • Viking 2-Landestelle,  hochauflösende Aufnahme der Oberfläche

    Viking 2-Landestelle, hochauflösende Aufnahme der Oberfläche

    High-resolution photo of the Martian surface near the Viking Lander 2 shows a few square meters at one of the possible spots for acquiring a soil sample. The sample will be collected next Saturday (September 11) by the Lander's trenching scoop and delivered to the spacecraft instruments. The rock in the right foreground is about 25 centimeters across. Most rocks appear to have vesicles, or small holes, in them. Such rocks on Earth can be produced by either volcanic processes or by hypervelocity impacts of meteorites. Some areas are lighter than others, suggesting the presence of two kinds of fine-grained materials, which also can be produced by both volcanic and impact processes. A nearby large impact crater, named Mie, may be the source of the rocks and fine-grained material at the landing site.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Viking 1-Landestelle, erste Aufnahme von der Oberfläche wenige Minuten nach der Landung

    Viking 1-Landestelle, erste Aufnahme von der Oberfläche wenige Minuten nach der Landung

    This is the first photograph ever taken on the surface of the planet Mars. It was obtained by Viking 1 just minutes after the spacecraft landed successfully early today. The center of the image is about 1.4 meters from Viking Lander camera #2. We see both rocks and finely granulated material – sand or dust. Many of the small foreground rocks are flat with angular facets. Several larger rocks exhibit irregular surfaces with pits and the large rock at top left shows intersecting linear cracks. Extending from that rock toward the camera is a vertical linear dark band which may be due to a one-minute partial obscuration of the landscape due to clouds or dust intervening between the sun and the surface. Associated with several of the rocks are apparent signs of wind transport of granular material. The large rock in the center is about 10 centimeters across and shows three rough facets. To its lower right is a rock near a smooth portion of the Martian surface probably composed of very fine-grained material. It is possible that the rock was moved during Viking 1 descent maneuvers, revealing the finer-grained basement substratum; or that the fine-grained material has accumulated adjacent to the rock. There are a number of other furrows and depressions and places with fine-grained material elsewhere in the picture. At right is a portion of footpad #2. Small quantities of fine grained sand and dust are seen at the center of the footpad near the strut and were deposited at landing. The shadow to the left of the footpad clearly exhibits detail, due to scattering of light either from the Martian atmosphere or from the spacecraft, observable because the Martian sky scatters light into shadowed areas.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Erstes Panorama der Viking Lander 1-Landestelle

    Erstes Panorama der Viking Lander 1-Landestelle

    First panoramic view by Viking 1 from the surface of Mars. The out of focus spacecraft component toward left center is the housing for the Viking sample arm, which is not yet deployed. Parallel lines in the sky are an artifact and are not real features. However, the change of brightness from horizon towards zenith and towards the right (west) is accurately reflected in this picture, taken in late Martian afternoon. At the horizon to the left is a plateau-like prominence much brighter than the foreground material between the rocks. The horizon features are approximately three kilometers away. At left is a collection of fine-grained material reminiscent of sand dunes. The dark sinuous markings in left foreground are of unknown origin. Some unidentified shapes can be perceived on the hilly eminence at the horizon towards the right. A horizontal cloud stratum can be made out halfway from the horizon to the top of the picture. At left is seen the low gain antenna for receipt of commands from the Earth. The projections on or near the horizon may represent the rims distant impact craters. In right foreground are color charts for Lander camera calibration, a mirror for the Viking magnetic properties experiment and part of a grid on the top of the Lander body. At upper right is the high gain dish antenna for direct communication between landed spacecraft and Earth. Toward the right edge is an array of smooth fine-grained material which shows some hint of ripple structure and may be the beginning of a large dune field off to the right of the picture, which joins with dunes seen at the top left in this 300° panoramic view. Some of the rocks appear to be undercut on one side and partially buried by drifting sand on the other.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Panorama der Viking 2-Landestelle mit Teilen der Sonde im Vordergrund

    Panorama der Viking 2-Landestelle mit Teilen der Sonde im Vordergrund

    This rocky panoramic scene is the second picture of the Martian surface that was taken by Viking Lander 2 shortly after touchdown on September 3.. The site is on a northern plain of Mars, at about 48 N. Lat., 226 W. Long., known as Utopia Planitia. The picture sweeps around 330 degrees in azimuth. The surface is strewn with rocks out to the horizon, ranging in size up to several meters across. Some pitted rocks resemble fragments of porous volcanic lava. Other rocks have grooves that may have been eroded by windblown sand and dust. Although fine-grained material is seen between the boulders, no sand dunes are evident. The dip in the eastern horizon at the center is an illusion caused by an 8-degree tilt of the Lander toward the west. Actually, the terrain is more level than that at the Viking 1 site. The horizon toward the left of the panorama (northwest) appears featureless, indicating that it may be several kilometers distant. The sky at the center (east) is bright because the sun was above but out of the picture at 10 AM Mars time. Toward the right (southeast), the rocks that are silhouetted against the skyline indicate that the horizon is much nearer, probably because of a slight rise in that area of the terrain. The circular high-gain antenna at the right has clots of fine-grained material adhering to the lower half, some of which appeared to have been sliding downward while the camera was scanning the area. At the extreme right, the banded appearance resulted because the camera continued to scan while it was no longer moving in azimuth. Any motion or other variation in the scene would show up as a change in successive lines.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Viking 2-Landestelle, hochauflösende Aufnahme der Umgebung mit Spuren von Frost

    Viking 2-Landestelle, hochauflösende Aufnahme der Umgebung mit Spuren von Frost

    This high-resolution photo of the surface of Mars was taken by Viking Lander 2 at its Utopia Planitia landing site on May 18, 1979 and relayed to Earth by Viking Orbiter 1 on June 7. It shows a thin coating of water ice on the rocks and soil. The time the frost appeared corresponds almost exactly with the buildup of frost one Martian year (23 Earth months) ago. Then it remained on the surface for about 100 days. Scientists believe dust particles in the atmosphere pick up bits of solid water. That combination is not heavy enough to settle to the ground. But carbon dioxide, which makes up 95 percent of the Martian atmosphere, freezes and adheres to the particles and they become heavy enough to sink. Warmed by the Sun the surface evaporates the carbon dioxide and returns it to the atmosphere leaving behind the water and dust. The ice seen in this picture, like that which formed one Martian year ago is extremely thin perhaps no more than one-thousandth of an inch thick.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Rover Sojourner auf der noch eingerollten Rampe auf Mars Pathfinder

    Rover Sojourner auf der noch eingerollten Rampe auf Mars Pathfinder

    The Sojourner rover and undeployed ramps onboard the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft can be seen in in this image, by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on July 4 (Sol 1). This image has been corrected for the curvature created by parallax. The microrover Sojourner is latched to the petal, and has not yet been deployed. The ramps are a pair of deployable metal reels which will provide a track for the rover as it slowly rolls off the lander, over the spacecraft's deflated airbags, and onto the surface of Mars. Pathfinder scientists will use this image to determine whether it is safe to deploy the ramps. One or both of the ramps will be unfurled, and then scientists will decide whether the rover will use either the forward or backward ramp for ist descent.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • 360°-Panorama der Mars Pathfinder-Landestelle

    360°-Panorama der Mars Pathfinder-Landestelle

    This is a "geometrically improved, color enhanced" version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the "Gallery Pan," the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double "Twin Peaks" are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock "Couch" is the dark, curved rock at right of "Twin Peaks." Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock "Barnacle Bill," which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock "Yogi." Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Teile des Viking Lander 2 mit der Umgebung im Hintergrund

    Teile des Viking Lander 2 mit der Umgebung im Hintergrund

    The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizonnearly two miles from Viking 2 on Mars' Utopian Plain.Scientists believe the colors of the Martian surface and sky inthis photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of reddust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon color ofthe sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere.Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at threelocations on the spacecraft. Note the blue starfield and redstripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high-gain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed September 3,1976, some 4600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched downon July 20.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Spirit-Landestelle, freigelegtes, geschichtetes Gestein bei Home Plate

    Spirit-Landestelle, freigelegtes, geschichtetes Gestein bei Home Plate

    For the past several weeks, Spirit has been examining spectacular layered rocks exposed at "Home Plate." The rover has been driving around the northern and eastern edges of Home Plate, on the way to "McCool Hill." Before departing, Spirit took this image showing some of the most complex layering patterns seen so far at this location.

    The layered nature of these rocks presents new questions for the rover team. In addition to their chemical properties, which scientists can study using Spirit's spectrometers, these rocks record a detailed history of the physical properties that formed them. In the center of this image, one group of layers slopes downward to the right. The layers above and below this group are more nearly horizontal. Where layers of different orientations intersect, other layers are truncated. This indicates that there were complex patterns of alternating erosion and deposition occurring when these layers were being deposited. Similar patterns can be found in some sedimentary rocks on Earth. Physical relationships among the various layers exposed at Home Plate are crucial evidence in understanding how these Martian rocks formed. Scientists suspect that the rocks at Home Plate were formed in the aftermath of a volcanic explosion or impact event, and they are investigating the possibility that wind may also have played a role in redistributing materials after such an event.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

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  • Twin Peaks südwestlich der Mars Pathfinder-Landestelle

    Twin Peaks südwestlich der Mars Pathfinder-Landestelle

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak.

    The composite color frames that make up this 'left-eye' image consist of 8 frames, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co- added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Nachmittag in an der Viking 1-Landestelle in Chryse Planitia

    Nachmittag in an der Viking 1-Landestelle in Chryse Planitia

    During the Viking Mission, the Viking Lander Camera System acquired many high-resolution images of the scene at Chryse Planitia. Using individual camera events, which occurred on many days throughout the mission, computer mosaics have been created for the site as viewed by each of the two cameras on the spacecraft. Two sets of mosaics were produced of Chryse Planitia; one pair for camera 1 and 2 images acquired in the early morning and one pair for camera 1 and 2 images acquired in the mid-afternoon.

    Each complete mosaiced scene extends 342.5 degrees in azimuth, and from approximately 5 degrees above the horizon to 60 degrees below. A complete mosaic incorporated approximately 15 million picture elements (pixels). This mosaic was produced in the early morning (14:00-15:30) by the Camera 1 system on Viking Lander 1.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • "Selbstproträt" des Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit

    The most recent self-portrait of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the solar panels still gleaming in the Martian sunlight and carrying only a thin veneer of dust two years after the rover landed and began exploring the red planet. Spirit's panoramic camera took this mosaic of images on the 586th sol, or Martian day, of exploration (Aug. 27, 2005), as part of a mammoth undertaking that resulted in the largest panorama ever acquired by Spirit. This image is a subset of that panorama, showing just the rover. The vertical projection used here produces the best view of the rover deck itself, though it distorts the ground and antennas somewhat.

    This image is an approximate true-color rendering that combines images taken through the camera's 600-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

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  • 360°-

    360°-"Husband Hill Summit"-Panorama mit dem Rover Spirit im Vordergrund

    The panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the hundreds of images combined into this 360-degree view, the "Husband Hill Summit" panorama. The images were acquired on Spirit's sols 583 to 586 (Aug. 24 to 27, 2005), shortly after the rover reached the crest of "Husband Hill" inside Mars' Gusev Crater. This is the largest panorama yet acquired from either Spirit or Opportunity. The panoramic camera shot 653 separate images in 6 different filters, encompassing the rover's deck and the full 360 degrees of surface rocks and soils visible to the camera from this position. This is the first time the camera has been used to image the entire rover deck and visible surface from the same position. Stitching together of all the images took significant effort because of the large changes in resolution and parallax across the scene.

    The image is an approximately true-color rendering using the 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the surface, and the 600-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the rover deck. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

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  • Spirit-Landestelle, Stein Adirondack in annähernder  Echtfarbe

    Spirit-Landestelle, Stein Adirondack in annähernder Echtfarbe

    This approximate true color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows "Adirondack," the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and means "They of the great rocks."

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Spirit-Landestelle im Krater Gusev mit Lander Columbia Memorial Station

    Spirit-Landestelle im Krater Gusev mit Lander Columbia Memorial Station

    This image mosaic taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's landing site, the Columbia Memorial Station, at Gusev Crater, Mars. This spectacular view may encapsulate Spirit's entire journey, from lander to its possible final destination toward the east hills. On its way, the rover will travel 250 meters (820 feet) northeast to a large crater approximately 200 meters (660 feet) across, the ridge of which can be seen to the left of this image. To the right are the east hills, about 3 kilometers (2 miles) away from the lander. The picture was taken on the 16th martian day, or sol, of the mission (Jan. 18/19, 2004). A portion of Spirit's solar panels appear in the foreground. Data from the panoramic camera's green, blue and infrared filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Opportunity-Landestelle mit hellem freigelegten Gestein

    Opportunity-Landestelle mit hellem freigelegten Gestein

    This high-resolution image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera highlights a portion of the puzzling rock outcropping that scientists eagerly wait to investigate. Presently, Opportunity is on its lander facing northeast; the outcropping lies to the northwest. These layered rocks measure only 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall and are thought to be either volcanic ash deposits or sediments carried by water or wind. Data from the panoramic camera's near-infrared, blue and green filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Umgebung der Spirit-Landestelle Mars mit bröckelndem Stein Mimi

    Umgebung der Spirit-Landestelle Mars mit bröckelndem Stein Mimi

    This color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 40 is centered on an unusually flaky rock called Mimi. Mimi is only one of many features in the area known as "Stone Council," but looks very different from any rock that scientists have seen at the Gusev crater site so far. Mimi's flaky appearance leads scientists to a number of hypotheses. Mimi could have been subjected to pressure either through burial or impact, or may have once been a dune that was cemented into flaky layers, a process that sometimes involves the action of water.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Opportunity-Landestelle mit Aufnahme des Steins McKittrick nach dem Einsatz des Rock Abrasion Tool

    Opportunity-Landestelle mit Aufnahme des Steins McKittrick nach dem Einsatz des Rock Abrasion Tool

    This image was taken by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera, providing a circular sign of the success of the rover's first grinding of a rock. The round, shallow hole seen in this image is on a rock dubbed "McKittrick," located in the "El Capitan" area of the larger outcrop near Opportunity's landing site.

    Opportunity used its rock abrasion tool to grind off a patch of rock 45.5 millimeters in diameter during the 30th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Feb. 23, 2004). The grinding exposed fresh rock for close inspection by the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers located on its robotic arm. The Honeybee Robotics team, which designed and operates the rock abrasion tool, determined the depth of the cut at "McKittrick" to be 4.4 millimeters deep.

    Bild: NASA/JPL

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  • Opportunity-Landestelle, Region Shoemaker's Patio mit blauen Kügelchen in Falschfarben

    Opportunity-Landestelle, Region Shoemaker's Patio mit blauen Kügelchen in Falschfarben

    This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed "Shoemaker's Patio" near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or "blueberries" distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Blick des Rovers Opportunity in den Krater Victoria

    Blick des Rovers Opportunity in den Krater Victoria

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from "Duck Bay" towards the dramatic promontory called "Cape Verde." The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters away from the rover and is about 6 meters tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Stein Tetl mit Schichten aus unterschiedlichem Material im Krater Gusev, Spirit-Landestelle

    Stein Tetl mit Schichten aus unterschiedlichem Material im Krater Gusev, Spirit-Landestelle

    Alternating layers of more-resisant and less-resistant material make up this portion of a rock called "Tetl," on the west spur of the "Columbia Hills" on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this picture with its microscopic imager on the rover's 272nd martian day (Oct. 7, 2004). The view covers an area about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide. The layers that are less resistant to eroding away recede in comparison to the more-resistant layers. Granules of apparently harder material can be seen eroding out of some layers. Several possible origins could account for this type of layering. One that scientists are considering for Tetl and similarly layered rocks is from multiple events of volcanic ash falling from the sky or flowing across the land. Another is from episodes of sediment precipitating from a body of water.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Teil des Kraterrandes von Endurance mit Burns Cliff, Rover Opportunity

    Teil des Kraterrandes von Endurance mit Burns Cliff, Rover Opportunity

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of "Burns Cliff" after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of "Endurance Crater." The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Rand des Kraters Victoria mit Kliff Cape Verde, Rover Opportunity

    Rand des Kraters Victoria mit Kliff Cape Verde, Rover Opportunity

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from "Duck Bay" towards the dramatic promontory called "Cape Verde." The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters away from the rover and is about 6 meters tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Victoria-Krater mit Cape St. Vincent mit einem Band aus hellem Gestein, Rover Opportunity

    Victoria-Krater mit Cape St. Vincent mit einem Band aus hellem Gestein, Rover Opportunity

    This image captured by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows "Cape St. Vincent," one of the many promontories that jut out from the walls of Victoria Crater, Mars. The material at the top of the promontory consists of loose, jumbled rock, then a bit further down into the crater, abruptly transitions to solid bedrock. This transition point is marked by a bright band of rock, visible around the entire crater.

    Scientists say this bright band represents what used to be the surface of Mars just before an impact formed Victoria Crater. After Opportunity begins to descend into the crater in early July 2007, it will examine the band carefully at an accessible location with a gentle slope. These investigations might help determine if the band's brighter appearance is the result of ancient interactions with the Martian atmosphere.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 1167 (May 6, 2007). It is presented in false color to accentuate differences in surface materials.

    Bild: NASA/JPL/Cornell

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  • Blick auf Krater Victoria mit Fahrspuren des Rovers Opportunity im Vordergrund

    Blick auf Krater Victoria mit Fahrspuren des Rovers Opportunity im Vordergrund

    NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers have been getting smarter as they get older. This view from Opportunity shows the tracks left by a drive executed with more onboard autonomy than has been used on any other drive by a Mars rover.

    Opportunity made the curving, 15.8-meter drive during its 1,160th Martian day, or sol (April 29, 2007). It was testing a navigational capability called "Field D-star," which enables the rover to plan optimal long-range drives around any obstacles in order to travel the most direct safe route to the drive's designated destination. Opportunity and its twin, Spirit, did not have this capability until the third year after their January 2004 landings on Mars. Earlier, they could recognize hazards when they approached them closely, then back away and try another angle, but could not always find a safe route away from hazards. Field D-Star and several other upgrades were part of new onboard software uploaded from Earth in 2006. The Sol 1,160 drive by Opportunity was a Martian field test of Field D-Star and also used several other features of autonomy, including visual odometry to track the rover's actual position after each segment of the drive, avoidance of designated keep-out zones, and combining information from two sets of stereo images to consider a wide swath of terrain in analyzing the route.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell University

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  • Polygonale Strukturen an der Phoenix-Landestelle

    Polygonale Strukturen an der Phoenix-Landestelle

    This image shows a polygonal pattern in the ground near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, similar in appearance to icy ground in the arctic regions of Earth. Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This is an approximate-color image taken shortly after landing by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager, inferred from two color filters, a violet, 450-nanometer filter and an infrared, 750-nanometer filter.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

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  • Mars, Graben

    Mars, Graben "Snow White" mit 16 Löchern der Raspel ,

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called "Snow White." This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol. Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image.

    A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Texas A&M University

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  • Volles Panorama der Phoenix-Landestelle mit dem Lander im Vordergrund

    Volles Panorama der Phoenix-Landestelle mit dem Lander im Vordergrund

    This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University Arizona/Texas A&M University

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  • Phoenix-Lander und Umgebung

    Phoenix-Lander und Umgebung

    This view combines hundreds of images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The landing was on May 25, 2008. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    Other Phoenix instruments, the lander's deck, and its two solar arrays are also visible. The robotic arm is not in the scene.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Texas A&M University

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  • Selbstporträt des staubbedeckten Rovers Opportunity

    Selbstporträt des staubbedeckten Rovers Opportunity

    This self portait from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows dust accumulation on the rover's solar panels as the mission approached its fifth Martian winter. The dust reduces the rover's power supply, and the rover's mobility is limited until the winter is over or wind cleans the panels. This is a mosaic of images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) during the 2,811th to 2,814th Martian days, or sols, of the rover's mission (Dec. 21 to Dec. 24, 2011). The downward-looking view omits the mast on which the camera is mounted.

    The portrait combines exposures taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 601 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 482 nanometers. It is presented in approximate true color, the camera team's best estimate of what the scene would look like if humans were there and able to see it with their own eyes.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/Arizona State Univ.

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  • Krater Gale mit aufgetragener Landeellipse des Rovers Curiosity

    Krater Gale mit aufgetragener Landeellipse des Rovers Curiosity

    As of June 2012, the target landing area for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission is the ellipse marked on this image of Gale Crater. The ellipse is about 12 miles long and 4 miles wide (20 kilometers by 7 kilometers).

    This view of Gale Crater is derived from a combination of data from three Mars orbiters. The view is looking straight down on the crater from orbit. Gale Crater is 154 kilometers in diameter. Mount Sharp rises about 5.5 kilometers above the floor of Gale Crater. Stratification on Mount Sharp suggests the mountain is a surviving remnant of an extensive series of deposits that were laid down after a massive impact that excavated Gale Crater more than 3 billion years ago. The layers offer a history book of sequential chapters recording environmental conditions when each stratum was deposited.

    The image combines elevation data from the High Resolution Stereo Camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, image data from the Context Camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and color information from Viking Orbiter imagery.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/MSSS

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  • Panorama vom Überwinterungsplatz des Rovers Opportunity

    Panorama vom Überwinterungsplatz des Rovers Opportunity

    This full-circle scene combines 817 images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. It shows the terrain that surrounded the rover while it was stationary for four months of work during its most recent Martian winter.

    Opportunity's Pancam took the component images between the 2,811th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's Mars surface mission (Dec. 21, 2011) and Sol 2,947 (May 8, 2012). The site is near the northern tip of the "Cape York" segment of the western rim of Endeavour Crater.

    Bright wind-blown deposits on the left are banked up against the Greeley Haven outcrop. Opportunity's tracks can be seen extending from the south, with a turn-in-place and other maneuvers evident from activities to position the rover at Greeley Haven. The tracks in some locations have exposed darker underlying soils by disturbing a thin, bright dust cover.

    Other bright, dusty deposits can be seen to the north, northeast, and east of Greeley Haven. The deposit at the center of the image, due north from the rover's winter location, is a dusty patch called "North Pole." Opportunity drove to it and investigated it in May 2012 as an example of wind-blown Martian dust.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/Arizona State Univ.

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  • Panorama von der Position Rocknest, Rover Curiosity

    Panorama von der Position Rocknest, Rover Curiosity

    This panorama is a mosaic of images taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on the NASA Mars rover Curiosity while the rover was working at a site called "Rocknest" in October and November 2012.

    The center of the scene, looking eastward from Rocknest, includes the Point Lake area. After the component images for this scene were taken, Curiosity drove 25.3 meters on Nov. 18 from Rocknest to Point Lake. From Point Lake, the Mastcam is taking images for another detailed panoramic view of the area further east to help researchers identify candidate targets for the rover's first drilling into a rock.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems

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  • Adern im Gestein Sheepbed, Rover Curiosity

    Adern im Gestein Sheepbed, Rover Curiosity

    This image of an outcrop at the "Sheepbed" locality, taken by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover with its right Mast Camera (Mastcam), shows well-defined veins filled with whitish minerals, interpreted as calcium sulfate.

    These veins form when water circulates through fractures, depositing minerals along the sides of the fracture, to form a vein.These veins are Curiosity's first look at minerals that formed within water that percolated within a subsurface environment.These vein fills are characteristic of the stratigraphically lowest unit in the "Yellowknife Bay" area -- known as the Sheepbed Unit.

    Mastcam obtained these images the 126th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's mission on Mars (Dec. 13, 2012). The view covers an area about 40 centimeters across. A superimposed scale bar is 8 centimeters long.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Schrägschichtung im Gebiet Shaler, Rover Curiosity

    Schrägschichtung im Gebiet Shaler, Rover Curiosity

    This image from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity shows inclined layering known as cross-bedding in an outcrop called "Shaler" on a scale of a few tenths of meters, or decimeters. The superimposed scale bar is 50 centimeters.

    This stratigraphic unit is called the Shaler Unit. Decimeter-scale cross-bedding in the Shaler Unit is indicative of sediment transport in stream flows. Currents mold the sediments into small underwater dunes that migrate downstream. When exposed in cross-section, evidence of this migration is preserved as strata that are steeply inclined relative to the horizontal -- thus the term "cross-bedding." The grain sizes here are coarse enough to exclude wind transport. This cross-bedding occurs stratigraphically above the Gillespie Unit in the "Yellowknife Bay" area of Mars' Gale Crater, and is therefore geologically younger.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Sedimentäre Ablagerungen im Gebiet Glenelg mit Spuren der Erosion durch Wind, Rover Curiosity

    Sedimentäre Ablagerungen im Gebiet Glenelg mit Spuren der Erosion durch Wind, Rover Curiosity

    This mosaic of images from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows a series of sedimentary deposits in the Glenelg area of Gale Crater, from a perspective in Yellowknife Bay looking toward west-northwest.

    Curiosity's science team has estimated that the "Cumberland" rock that the rover drilled for a sample of the Sheepbed mudstone deposit (at lower left in this scene) has been exposed at the surface for only about 80 million years. The estimate is based on amounts of certain gases that accumulate in a rock when it is close enough to the surface to be bombarded by cosmic rays. An explanation for that unexpectedly young exposure age comes from improved understanding of how the layers are eroding to expose underlying layers. The explanation proposes that the mudstone is being exposed by abrasion by windblown sand, indicated by arrows. The role for wind is strongly suggested by the undercutting of the Sheepbed layer below the Gillespie Lake sandstone.

    Mastcam took the images for this mosaic during the 188th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars (Feb. 14, 2013). A rock ledge about 20 centimeters high at the bottom of the scene – where the Gillespie Lake layer meets the Sheepbed layer – is about 15 meters from the rover's location when the images were taken. The midfield escarpment called "Point Lake" is about 36 meters from the rover's location. The outcrop on the near horizon is about 13 meters higher in elevation than the Sheepbed-Gillespie contact and at a distance of about 240 meters.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Mikroskopaufnahme von kleinen Kügelchen nahe Krater Fram, Rover Opportunity

    Mikroskopaufnahme von kleinen Kügelchen nahe Krater Fram, Rover Opportunity

    The small spherules on the Martian surface in this close-up image are near Fram Crater, visited by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during April 2004. The area shown is 1.2 inches (3 centimeters) across. The view comes from the microscopic imager on Opportunity's robotic arm, with color information added from the rover's panoramic camera.

    These are examples of the mineral concretions nicknamed "blueberries." Opportunity's investigation of the hematite-rich concretions during the rover's three-month prime mission in early 2004 provided evidence of a watery ancient environment. This image was taken during the 84th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars (April 19, 2004). The location is beside Fram Crater, which Opportunity passed on its way from Eagle Crater, where it landed, toward Endurance Crater, where it spent most of the rest of 2004. A context image is online at PIA05822.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/USGS

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  • Höhere Regionen des Mount Sharp im Krater Gale, Rover Curiosity

    Höhere Regionen des Mount Sharp im Krater Gale, Rover Curiosity

    This composite image looking toward the higher regions of Mount Sharp was taken on September 9, 2015, by NASA's Curiosity rover. In the foreground – about 2 miles (3 kilometers) from the rover – is a long ridge teeming with hematite, an iron oxide. Just beyond is an undulating plain rich in clay minerals. And just beyond that are a multitude of rounded buttes, all high in sulfate minerals. The changing mineralogy in these layers of Mount Sharp suggests a changing environment in early Mars, though all involve exposure to water billions of years ago. The Curiosity team hopes to be able to explore these diverse areas in the months and years ahead. Further back in the image are striking, light-toned cliffs in rock that may have formed in drier times and now is heavily eroded by winds.

    The colors are adjusted so that rocks look approximately as they would if they were on Earth, to help geologists interpret the rocks. This "white balancing" to adjust for the lighting on Mars overly compensates for the absence of blue on Mars, making the sky appear light blue and sometimes giving dark, black rocks a blue cast.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Blick auf den unteren Teil von Mount Sharp mit den Bagnold-Dünen im Vordergrund, Rover Curiosity

    Blick auf den unteren Teil von Mount Sharp mit den Bagnold-Dünen im Vordergrund, Rover Curiosity

    The dark band in the lower portion of this Martian scene is part of the "Bagnold Dunes" dune field lining the northwestern edge of Mount Sharp, inside Gale Crater. The view combines multiple images taken with the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on Sept. 25, 2015, during the 1,115th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The images are from Mastcam's right-eye camera, which has a telephoto lens. The view is toward south-southeast.

    The informal name for the dune field is a tribute to British military engineer Ralph Bagnold (1896-1990), a pioneer in the study of how winds move sand particles of dunes on Earth. The dune field is evident as a dark band in orbital images of the area inside Gale Crater where Curiosity has been active since landing in 2012.

    Dunes are larger than wind-blown ripples of sand or dust that Curiosity and other rovers have visited previously.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Erstes Selfie des Landers InSight

    Erstes Selfie des Landers InSight

    This is NASA InSight's first full selfie on Mars. It displays the lander's solar panels and deck. On top of the deck are its science instruments, weather sensor booms and UHF antenna. The selfie was taken on Dec. 6, 2018 (Sol 10).

    The selfie is made up of 11 images which were taken by its Instrument Deployment Camera, located on the elbow of its robotic arm. Those images are then stitched together into a mosaic.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech

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  • Ausschnitt aus dem ersten hochaufgelösten Panorama, Rover Perseverance

    Ausschnitt aus dem ersten hochaufgelösten Panorama, Rover Perseverance

    Stitched together from 79 individual images, this Mastcam-Z right-eye 110-mm zoom mosaic is from the camera's first high-resolution panorama imaging sequence. These images were taken on the afternoon of Sol 4 (Feb. 22, 2021) of the mission; a sol is a Martian day.

    The camera was commanded to take these images by scanning the mast, or "head," a full 360-degrees around the horizon visible from the landing site. The top of some of the distant crater rim is cut off in some images to ensure the images would cover the front ridge of the Jezero Crater's ancient delta, which is only about 2 kilometers away from the rover in the center of this panorama. At that distance and focal length, Mastcam-Z can resolve features as small as about 50 centimeters across along the front of the delta.

    The mosaic is not white balanced but is instead displayed in a preliminary calibrated version of a natural color composite, approximately simulating the colors of the scene that we would see if we were there viewing it ourselves.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

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  • Blick von Greenheugh Pediment, Rover Curiosity

    Blick von Greenheugh Pediment, Rover Curiosity

    Stitched together from 28 images, this view from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover was captured on April 9, 2020, the 2,729th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after the rover ascended a steep slope, part of a geologic feature called "Greenheugh Pediment." In the foreground is the crusty sandstone cap that stretches the length of the pediment, forming an overhanging ledge in some parts. At center is the "clay-bearing unit," a region with a unique story to tell about the history of water on Mount Sharp, the 5-kilometer-tall mountain Curiosity has been ascending since 2014. In the distance at the top of the image is the floor of Gale Crater, which is 154 kilometers wide.

    The rover's Mast Camera, or Mastcam, provided the panorama. Malin Space Science Systems in San Diego built and operates Mastcam. A division of Caltech, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California built the Curiosity rover and manages the Mars Science Laboratory mission for the agency's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Landestelle des Rovers Persverance

    Landestelle des Rovers Persverance "Octavia E. Butler Landing" im Krater Jezero

    NASA has named the landing site of the agency's Perseverance rover "Octavia E. Butler Landing," after the science fiction author Octavia E. Butler. The landing location is marked with a star in this image from the High Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

    A key objective for Perseverance's mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet's geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust).

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

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  • Selfie des Rovers Perseverance mit Helikopter Ingenuity

    Selfie des Rovers Perseverance mit Helikopter Ingenuity

    NASA's Perseverance Mars rover took a selfie with the Ingenuity helicopter, seen here about 3.9 meters from the rover in this image taken April 6, 2021, the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission by the WATSON (Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering) camera on the SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) instrument, located at the end of the rover's long robotic arm.

    Perseverance's selfie with Ingenuity is made up of 62 individual images stitched together once they are sent back to Earth; they were taken in sequence while the rover was looking at the helicopter, then again while it was looking at the WATSON camera. The Curiosity rover takes similar selfies using a camera on its robotic arm. Videos explaining how the rovers take their selfies can be found here.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Selbstporträt des Rovers Curiosity vor Mount Mercou

    Selbstporträt des Rovers Curiosity vor Mount Mercou

    NASA's Curiosity Mars rover used two different cameras to create this selfie in front of Mont Mercou, a rock outcrop that stands 6 meters tall. The panorama is made up of 60 images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on the rover's robotic arm on March 26, 2021, the 3070th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. These were combined with 11 images taken by the Mastcam on the mast, or "head," of the rover on March 16, 2021, the 3,060th Martian day of the mission.

    The hole visible to the left of the rover is where its robotic drill sampled a rock nicknamed "Nontron." The Curiosity team is nicknaming features in this part of Mars using names from the region around the village of Nontron in southwestern France.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

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  • Helikopter Ingenuity mit frei drehbaren Rotoren

    Helikopter Ingenuity mit frei drehbaren Rotoren

    NASA's Ingenuity helicopter unlocked its rotor blades, allowing them to spin freely, on April 7, 2021, the 47th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. They had been held in place since before launch, and the unlocking is one of several milestones that must be met before the helicopter can attempt the first powered, controlled flight on another planet. This image was captured by the Mastcam-Z imager on NASA's Perseverance Mars rover on the following sol, April 8, 2021.

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  • Flacher Hügel Kodiak aus 2,2 km Entfernung, Rover Perseverance

    Flacher Hügel Kodiak aus 2,2 km Entfernung, Rover Perseverance

    This enhanced-color image of Mars' Jezero Crater was taken by the Mastcam-Z instrument aboard NASA's Perseverance rover on April 18, 2021. The foreground flat-topped hill, informally named "Kodiak," is 2.2 kilometers from the rover and 250 meters wide. It exposes ancient layered rocks that indicate gradual deposition of sediments in a river delta, followed by floods.

    The color bands of the image have been processed to improve visual contrast and accentuate color differences.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

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  • Mars Helicopter Ingenuity im

    Mars Helicopter Ingenuity im "Airfield J"

    NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter sits on a slightly inclined surface with about 6-degree tilt at the center of the frame. The location, "Airfield J" (the 10th airfield), is just north of the southern ridge of the "Séítah" geologic unit. The Mastcam-Z instrument aboard NASA's Perseverance rover took this image on Dec. 1, 2021 (the 279th Martian day, or sol, of Perseverance's mission), when the rotorcraft was about 295 meters from the rover.

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

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  • Hügel Santa Cruz im Krater Jezero, Rover Perseverance

    Hügel Santa Cruz im Krater Jezero, Rover Perseverance

    NASA's Perseverance Mars rover snapped this view of a hill in Mars' Jezero Crater called "Santa Cruz" on April 29, 2021, the 68th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. About 50 centimeters across on average, the boulders in the foreground are among the type of rocks the rover team has named "Ch'al" (the Navajo term for "frog" and pronounced "chesh"). Perseverance will return to the area in the next week or so.

    Composed of multiple images, this enhanced-color mosaic was created using the left- and right-eye views of Perseverance's Mastcam-Z camera system, merging the scene into a single, wider view. Santa Cruz hill is a possible eroded remnant of Jezero Crater's western delta. The hill is about 50 meters tall and was roughly 2.5 kilometers east of the rover when the photo was taken, viewed from "Van Zyl Overlook."

    Bild: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

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